Perspectives on Plasmas part of header
Applications  Overview |  Technology  |  Basic Plasma Physics  |  Space Plasmas  |  Plasma Astrophysics                       Magnetic Confinement Fusion  |  High Energy Density Physics  |  Alternate Concepts for Fusion

   Many alternate fusion concepts are being investigated even though Tokamak magnetic confinement systems remain a leading candidate for practical fusion energy reactors. The leading alternatives are compared in the video series The New Fusion Race.

Density * Confinement Time * Temperature. In order of best to worst: EAST, NIF, W7-X, JET, Focus Fusion, Z-Machine, PALS, Tri-Alpha, EMC2, General Fusion, Helion

This chart shows one way to compare the alternative fusion approaches (places 5-11) with the mainstream efforts (places 1-4) using the Lawson product of density, confinement time and ion temperature.

Two Magnetrons Heating Up Deuterium Gas in Chamber
       Dense Plasma Focus Device FF-1 undergoing microwave plasma cleaning.

Alternate Fusion Concepts

Research Centers emphasizing Alternate Fusion Concepts

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